Criminal Justice System Definition Of Terms
4 Principal Methods Of Implementing The Punitive Policy Used During The History Of Mankind
Ancient Rome – A nation who pioneered banishment as a form of punishment.
Approaches To The Explanation Of Crime
Australia – A place where after the Americans gained their independence from England in 1786, the prisoners of England were transferred until 1867.
Autophobia – It is a morbid fear of one's self or of being alone.
Berlin – The country where the last burning at the stake was made until 1786.
Biology – Is the study of living things. The science that deals with the origin, history, physical characteristics, life, processes, habits etc. of plants and animals.
Classical School – This school of penology which Beccaria made of the first significant contributions and to which Rousseau Montesquieu and Voltaire belonged maintained the doctrine of psychological hedonism, that the individual calculates pleasures and pains in advance of action and regulates his conduct by the results of his calculations. That since punishment must be one that can be calculated, it must be same for all individual regardless of age, mentality, social or other conditions.
Criminalistics – Sum total of the application of all sciences in crime detection. A criminal commits crime by means of things or he leaves something in the crime scene.
These Physical Evidence Include But Not Limited To The Following
1. Blood and Blood stain
2. Firearms and other deadly weapons
3. Fingerprints and footprints
4. Tool marks and many more
Criminal Etiology – Is an attempt at scientific analysis of the causes of crime.
Criminological Schools -
Divisions Of Criminalistics -
3 Classes of Criminals
Middle Of The 16th Century – The period when the first house of correction appeared in England on the petition of Bishop Ridley of London for help in dealing with the sturdy vagabonds of the city. The King gave his place at Bridewell to be one of the hospitals of the city for lewd and idle and a place for the employment of the unemployed and the training of children.
Modern Trend In Criminology And Penology – Is that the offender in society regardless of the gravity of the offense must be corrected and rehabilitated for eventual return to the community.
Neo-Classical School – This school arose at the time of the French revolution and the period immediately following, maintained that while the classical school was correct in general, it should be modified in certain details since children and lunatic can not calculate pleasures and pain, they should not be regarded as criminals or to be punished.
PEACE – Philippine Educator's Association for Criminology Education, January 15, 1983.
Penology – Concerned with the control and prevention of crime and the treatment of youthful offenders.
Phenomenon – Any extremely unusual or extra ordinary thing or occurrence.
Philippine College Of Criminology – At Sta. Cruz Manila, Formerly known as Plaridel College, 1950's.
Police/Law Enforcement – The core of the criminal justice system or the institution which the other machineries of the criminal justice system are developed.
Positive School – This school denied individual responsibility and reflected an essentially non punitive reaction to crime and criminality. The adherents of this school maintained that a crime as any other act is a natural phenomenon like tornado, flood etc.
Principal Division Of Criminology -
Social Contract Theory – It is based on the principle that it is the obligation of the state to protect and provide safety of the people and to promote the happiness of its constituent members. In return for these services, it is the obligation of the individual member to surrender a small portion of his natural liberty in obedience to the valid laws of the state.
Social Control Theory – Since man has enjoyed freely the protection and security, it is necessary for the state to assume some sort of control over the behavior of the members so that the greatest happiness for the majority can be obtained.
Sociology Of Law – Is an attempt at scientific analysis of the conditions under which penal/criminal laws develop as a process of formal social control.
Theories Underlying Criminal Law In Relation To Man
Juvenile Delinquency: Next Page
2. Juvenile Delinquency