Corrections - is typically carried out by government agencies and involves the punishment, treatment, and
supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes.
Penology - The study of the punishment of crime and prison management.Is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice to repress criminal activities via an appropriate treatment and supervision of persons convicted of criminal offenses.
Punishment - is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense."The penalty inflicted".
Prison reform - is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons and aiming a a more effective penal system.
Prison - is a place in which people are physically confined and usually deprived of a range of personal freedoms.
Jail - is a short term detention facility.
Halfway house - also called recovery house or sober house - is a place to allow people to begin the process of reintegration with society while still providing monitoring and support; this is generally believed to reduce the risk of recidivism or relapse when compared to a release directly into society.
Rehabilitation - it came from latin word "habilis" literally fit or suitable. Its meaning was expanded to mean "restore to sound operation" or "to establish the good reputation".
Solitary confinement - is a special form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated fro any human contact, though often with the exception of members of prison staff.
Zebulon Reed Brockway - regarded as the father of prison reform in the United States. Believed that the primary reason to have a prisoner in custody was to rehabilitate and not simply to punish. Warden at the Elmira reformatory from 1876 to 1900. He introduced the following:
Alexander Maconochie - (1787 -1860) - a Scottish naval officer, geographer and penal reformer. His two basic principle of penology were that:
Modern Form/Method of Punishment
Ancient Form/Method of Punishment
by hanging, 84 persons were executed by electric
chair, 7 persons were executed by lethal injection.
* Majority of inmates confined in national prison did
not finish high school, 6% never went to school or
were illiterate and 3% earned a college degree.