Patrol Organization and Operation
Patrol - from french patrouiller - to paddle, paw about, patrol.
- keep watch over an area by regularly walking or traveling
around or through it.
- a person or group of people sent to keep watch over an
Patrol officers - are uniformed officers assigned to monitor specific geographical areas, that is to move through their areas at regular intervals looking out for any signs of problems of any kind.
History of Patrol
1. Ancient China - law enforcement was carried out by prefect.
Prefects were government officials appointed by local magistrates
who reported to higher authorities such as the governors who in
turn were appointed by head of state usually the emperor of the
2. Ancient Greece - publicly owned slaves were used by
magistrates as police.In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves
(rod-bearers) was used to guard public meetings to keep order
and for crowd control and also assisted with
dealing with criminal, handling prisoners and making arrests.
3. Roman empire - the army rather than a dedicated police
organization provided security. Local watchmen were hired by
cities to provide some extra security.Magistrates such as
procurators, fiscals and quaestros investigated crime.
Under the reign of Augustus, 14 wards were created, the wards
were protected by seven squads of 1000 men called vigiles who
acted as firemen and night watchmen. Their duties included
apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing run away slaves.
The vigiles were supported by the urban cohorts
who acted as a heavy duty riot force and praetorian guard if
4. Medieval England - the Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining
public order since the Norman conquest was a private system of
tithing, led by a constable to enforce the law.
5. Spain - modern police in Europe has a precedent in the
Hermandus or (brotherhood) - peace keeping association of
individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain.
The first recorded case of the formation of the hermandad
occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united
to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de compostela in galicia and
protect the pilgrims against robber knights.
6. France - The first police force in the modern sense was created
by the government of king Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of
Paris, then the largest city in Europe.
7. Britain and Ireland - in England, a system of sheriffs, reeves
and investigative juries to provide basic security and law
8. In the US - the first city police services were established in
Philadelphia in 1751, Boston 1838 and new york 1845.
police officers attain college degrees.
2. First police chief to create a motorized
force placing officers on motorcycles
and cars so that they could patrol broader
areas with greater efficiency .
3. He was also the first to use the lie detector
in police work.
1. Organize - means planning the work of the
department and of the personnel in an orderly
2. Delegate - means giving someone else the
responsibility and authority to do something.The
supervisor confers upon a subordinate officer the
same authority and responsibility that the
supervisor possesses to accomplish the specific task
The supervisor remain responsible for the
completion of the delegated task.
3. Oversee - means that the supervisor ensures that
the work that has been organized and delegated is
Community policing - is the process by which an organized group of citizens devoted a time to crime prevention within a neighborhood. When suspecting criminal activities, members are encourage to contact the authorities and not to intervene.
Beat patrol - the deployment of officers in a given community, area or locality to prevent and deter criminal activity and to provide day to day services to the community.
Sting Operations - organized groups of detectives who deceived criminals into openly committing illegal acts of conspiring to engage in criminal activity.
Hotspots of Crime - the view that a significant portion of all police calls in cities typically radiate from a relatively few locations.
Models of Policing
1. Neighborhood Oriented Policing - a philosophy of
police suggesting that problem solving is best done
at the neighborhood level, where issues originate
not at a far-off central headquarters.
2. Pro Active Policing - aggressive law enforcement
style in which patrol officers take the initiative
against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to
3. Problem Oriented Policing - a style of police
management that stresses pro active problem
solving instead of reactive crime fighting.
4.Community Oriented Policing - programs designed
to bring the police and the public closer together
and create more cooperative working environment
5. Reactive Policing - the opposite of Pro Active
policing where the police wait for crime to occur.
Blue Curtain - describes the secrecy and insulation
from others in society that is a consequence of the police subculture.
Cynicism - the belief that most peoples actions are motivated solely by personal needs and selfishness.
Civilian Review Board - ex. PLEB - organized citizen groups that examine police misconduct.
Watchman - style of policing characterized by an emphasis on maintaining public order.
Fleeing Felon Rule - the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force.
Beats - designated police patrol areas.
Internal Affairs - unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct.
Deadly Force - police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a danger to an officer or the community.
Booking - the administrative record of an arrest listing the offenders name, address, physical description, date of birth, time of arrest, offense and name of arresting officer. It also include photographing and fingerprinting of the offender.
Line Up - placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a witness.
Stop and Frisk - the situation in which police officers who are suspicious of an individual run their hands lightly over the suspects outer garments to determine if the person is carrying a concealed weapon. Also called Inquiry of Pat Down.
Foot Patrol - police patrol that takes officer out of cars and puts them in walking beat to strengthen ties with the community.
Excited Delirium - an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontation with the police.
* Patrol reduces crime by creating an impression of
Responding to Crime - total response time is comprised of four dimensions.
1. Discovery Time - interval between the commission
of the crime and its discovery.
2. Reporting Time - interval between the discovery
of the crime and when it is reported to the police.
3. Processing Time - interval between receiving the
call and dispatching the officers for service.
4. Travel time - the amount of time it takes for the
police to travel to the scene of the crime.
The Phantom Effect - "residual deterrence" most people believe that the police is present even when the are not in sight.
Sworn Date - the date that a sworn employee took the oath of office for their position.
Advantages of Foot/Bicycle Patrol
1. Increased personal contact between the police and
2. Increased observation ability.
3. Increased ability to gather information
Advantages of Motorized Patrol
1. Increased speed and mobility
2. Increased conspicuousness
3. Availability of additional equipment
4. Increased transportation capability
5. Deceased response time
Basic Preventive Patrol Methods Utilized by an Officer
1. Frequent check and contact with business premises
2. Frequent check of suspicious persons
3. Fluctuating patrol patterns
4. Maintenance of visibility and personal contact
5. Daily individual patrol and community action plan
Factors to be Considered in Becoming Familiar with the Community
1. General population information
2. Appropriate geographical information
3. Recent criminal activity
4. Specific factors that may influence patrol functions
ex. location of hospitals, high crime areas,
How to Prepare for a Normal Patrol Shift
1. Gathering information through crime reports and
2. Gathering needed materials ex. report forms,
3. Obtaining and checking equipment
4. Planning work around identified priorities
5. Preparing daily patrol and community action plan
What an Officer on Night time Patrol Should be Looking for
1. broken glasses
2. open doors and windows
3. pry marks
4. suspicious vehicles
5. persons on foot
6. differences in normal lighting (on or Off)
7. unusual sounds
8. access to roof tops or upper floors
Definition of Terms
1. Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a
department wide responsibility for providing a
specific specialized functions.
2. Unit - a subdivision of a section usually small in
size with personnel assigned to perform a
specialized activity, one or two employees
3. Squad - a subdivision of a unit.
4. Detail - a subdivision of a squad.
5. Precinct -the primary geographic subdivision of
the patrol operation bureau.
6. Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a
precinct, supervised by a sergeant.
7. Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector.
8. Watch/Shift - one of several tours of duty.
9. Post - a fixed geographic location usually assigned
to an individual officer.
10.Task Force - an adhoc work group normally
established by bureau commander to respond to a
specific incident or series of related incidents. Task
Force assignment is temporary.
11.Chief of Police - overall commander of the
12.Chain of Command - a fundamental component
of proper supervision.The chain of command
requires that each employee reports and is
accountable to only one direct supervisor.
Patrol Organization Reviewer 1: Next Page
1. Police Operational Planning
2. Intelligence and Secret Service