Administration of Police Organization
Police - one of the pillars of the criminal justice system that has the specific responsibility of maintaining law and order and combating crime within the society.
- comes from Latin "politia"-civil administration which itself derives from the ancient Greek police "city"
Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency.
Organization - a group of persons working together for a common goal or objectives.
Police Organization - a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that promotes the maintenance of peace and order, protection of life and property, enforcement of the laws and the prevention of crimes.
Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.
Law Enforcement Agency - pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing the laws.
Objectives - refer to the purpose by which the organization was created. Refer to the goals of the organization.
Supervision - means the act of watching over the work or tasks of the members of the organization to ensure that desired results are achieved.
Management - the process of directing and facilitating the work of people organized in formal groups in order to achieve objectives. Judicious or wise use of resources (manpower, material,money,equipment,
supplies and time).
Hierarchy - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in any given organization. Serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward and obedience upward, through the department.
Authority - the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower positions within an organizational hierarchy. Must be viewed in terms of prescribed roles rather than of individuals.
A particular position within the organization. Carries the same regardless of who occupies that position.
Principles of efficient Management
* Division of work - work specialization can increase
efficiency with the same amount of effort.
* Authority and Responsibility- authority includes the
right to command and the power to require
obedience. One can not have authority without
* Discipline - necessary for an organization to function
effectively, however, the state of the disciplinary
process depends upon the quality of its leaders.
* Unity of Command - subordinate should receive
orders from one superior only.
* Scalar Chain - the hierarchy of authority is the order
of ranks from the highest to the lowest levels of the
organization. Shows the vertical hierarchy of the
organization which defines an unbroken chain of
units from top to bottom describing explicitly the
flow of authority.
Organizational Units in the Police Organization
1. Functional Units
Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a
large department; comprised of several divisions.
Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.
Section - functional unit within a division that is
necessary for specialization.
Unit - functional group within a section or the
smallest functional group within an organization.
2. Territorial Units
Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is
assigned for duty.
Route - a length of streets designated for patrol
purpose, also called line beat.
Beat - an area designed for patrol purposes
whether foot or motorized.
Sector - an area containing two or more beat,
route or post.
District - a geographical subdivision of a city for
patrol purposes, usually with its own station.
Area - a section or territorial division of a large city
each comprised of designated districts.
EVOLUTION OF THE POLICING SYSTEM
ORIGIN OF THE WORD “POLICE”
POLITEIA – Greek word which means government of the city
POLITIA – Roman word which means condition of the state or government
POLICE – French word which was later adopted by the English language
THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE
1. HOME RULE THEORY
- policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely
for the efficiency of their functions upon the express needs of
- policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the
preservation of public peace and security.
2. CONTINENTAL THEORY
- policemen are regarded as state or servants of the
- the people have no share or have little participation
with the duties nor connection with the police
CONCEPTS OF POLICE SERVICE
1. OLD CONCEPT
- police service gives the impression of being merely a
- this philosophy advocates that the measurement of
police competence is the increasing number of arrests,
throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than
trying to prevent them from committing crimes
2. MODERN CONCEPT
- regards police as the first line of defense of the
criminal justice system, an organ of crime prevention
- police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number
- broadens police activities to cater to social services
and has for its mission the welfare of the individual
as well as that of the community in general.
EARLY POLICING SYSTEM
1. KIN POLICING
- the family of the offended individual was expected to
assume responsibility for justice
- the family of the victim was allowed to exact
- ancient rulers had elite unit to protect them
- created the MEDJAYS, a form of police force whose
duties include guarding of the tombs and apprehending
- introduced the use of dogs as guards and protectors.
- created the first organized police force called
VIGILES OF ROME, or VIGILES URBANI (watchmen of the
city), which had the primary task of firefighting and
- the Vigiles acted as night watch, apprehendinng
thieves, keeping an eye out for burglars and hunting
down runaway slaves, and were on occasion used to
maintain order in the streets
- the Vigiles dealt primarily with petty crimes and
looked for disturbances of the peace while they
patrolled the streets
- created a special unit called PRAETORIAN GUARDS, a
special force of guards used by Roman Emperors as the
Emperors' personal guards
- as personal guards of the Emperor, their primary duty
was to protect the Emperor from assassination and
other forms of attack against the Emperor.
a) FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM/MUTUAL PLEDGE SYSTEM
- required all males aged 12 and above to join a group
of nine to form a TYTHING
- members of the tything are called a TYTHINGMEN
- a CONSTABLE served as a leader of ten tythings
- the primary task of the things was to protect their
village from thieves and animals
- tythings were later organized into SHIRES
- a shire was headed by a leader called SHIRE REEVE,
which is the origin of the word “sheriff”
- their duty was to apprehend offenders
b) PARISH CONSTABLES
- a parish official charged with controlling crimes
- appointed to serve for one year
- duties included organizing watchmen to guard the
- during trouble, the watchman would raise a “HUE AND
CRY”, a call to arms where the rest of the parish
would stop what they were doing and come to the aid
of the constable.
MODERN POLICING SYSTEM
a. BOWSTREET RUNNERS - a group of men
organized to arrest offenders.
- organized by Henry Fielding, a magistrate in
London,in 1749 in London, England.
- the name was adopted from the name of the street
where the office of Henry Fielding was located.
- when Henry Fielding retired as magistrate, he was
replaced by his blind brother, John Fielding
b. METROPOLITAN POLICE OF ACT 1829
- the law that created the first modern police force in
London England, called the Metropolitan Police
- this law was passed through the initiative of Sir
Robert Peel, a member of the Parliament
- the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service
is the Scotland Yard, now known as the New
SIR ROBERT PEEL - recognized as the father of modern policing system.
2. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
a. NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT
- created in 1845 in New York, USA
- recognized as the first modern style police
department in the US.
- the largest police force in the world
- modeled after the Metropolitan Police Service of
b. BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT
- the oldest police department in the US
- the first night watch was established in Boston in
- formally founded in May, 1854.
AUGUST VOLLMER - recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for his contributions in the development of the field of criminal justice in the US
- author of the book, Police Administration, which
served as the basic guide in the administration of the
police organization in the US
- was the first police chief of Berkeley, California.
Important Personalities in the Evolution of Philippine Policing
Brig.Gen. Rafael Crame - the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1917.
Col. Antonio Torres - the first Filipino Chief of Police of the Manila Police Department in 1935.
Col. Lambert Javalera - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department after the Philippine Independence from the United States of America in 1946
Dir.Gen. Cesar Nazareno - the first chief of the Philippine National Police.
HIGHLIGHTS OF RA 6975 – THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT OF
1990, RA 8551 – THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE REFORM AND REORGANIZATION ACT OF
1998 and RA 9708
A. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL
- formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)
- reorganized under RA 6975
ORGANIZATION: - consist of:
a) the Department proper
b) existing bureaus and offices of the DLG
c) local government units (LGU)
1) provincial governors
2) city and municipal mayors
d) the National Police Commission
e) the Philippine Public Safety College
f) Philippine National Police
g) Bureau of Fire Protection
h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
- the PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA
- headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the
President and who shall serve at the pleasure of the
- the Secretary shall be assisted by two (2)
Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secretaries
a) Undersecretary for Local Government
b) Undersecretary for Peace and Order
- No retired or resigned military officer or police
official may be appointed as Secretary within one
(1) year from date of retirement or resignation
- the Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the
National Police Commission
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE DILG
1. Assist the President in the exercise of general
supervision over local governments;
2. Advise the President in the promulgation of policies,
rules, regulations and other issuances on the general
supervision over local governments and on public
order and safety;
3. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other
issuance's implementing laws on public order and
safety, the general supervision over local
governments and the promotion of local autonomy
and community empowerment and monitor compliance
4. Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local
governments, law enforcement and public safety;
Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and
projects to promote peace and order, ensure public
safety and further strengthen the administrative,
technical and fiscal capabilities of local government
offices and personnel;
5. Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet
local emergencies arising from natural and man-made
disasters; Establish a system of coordination and
cooperation among the citizenry, local executives and
the Department, to ensure effective and efficient
delivery of basic services to the public;
6. Organize, train and equip primarily for the
performance of police functions, a police force that
is national in scope and civilian in character.
RELATIONSHIP OF THE DILG WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE (DND)
- under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines
(AFP) was in charge with external security while the
DILG was in charge with internal security
- under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines
is now in charge with both internal and external
security with the PNP as support through information
gathering and performance of ordinary police
NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION
- an agency attached to the DILG for policy
- shall exercise administrative control and
operational supervision over the PNP.
VISION OF THE NAPOLCOM
"We envision the National Police Commission as a
highly dynamic, committed and responsive administering and
controlling body, actively and effectively facilitating the
evolvement of a highly professional, competent,
disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP"
MISSION OF THE NAPOLCOM
"To administer and control the Philippine National
Police with the end in view of maintaining a highly
professional, competent, disciplined, credible and
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NAPOLCOM
A. Exercise administrative control and operational
supervision over the Philippine National Police (PNP)
which shall mean the power to:
1. Develop policies and promulgate a police manual
prescribing rules and regulations for efficient
organization, administration, and operation, including
criteria for manpower allocation distribution and
deployment, recruitment, selection, promotion, and
retirement of personnel and the conduct of qualifying
entrance and promotional examinations for
2. Examine and audit, and thereafter establish
standards for such purposes on a continuing basis,
the performance,activities, and facilities of all police
agencies throughout the country;
3. Establish a system of uniform crime reporting;
4. Conduct annual self-report surveys and compile
statistical data for accurate assessment of the crime
situation and the proper evaluation of the efficiency
and effectiveness of all police units in the country;
5. Approve or modify plans and programs on education
and training, logistical requirements, communications,
records,information systems, crime laboratory, crime
prevention and crime reporting;
6. Affirm, reverse or modify, through the National
Appellate Board, personnel administrative actions
involving the demotion or dismissal from the service
imposed upon members of the Philippine National
Police by the Chief of the Philippine National Police;
7. Exercise appellate jurisdiction through the Regional
Appellate Boards, over administrative cases against
policemen and over decisions on claims for police
8. Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment,
and uniforms and, after consultation with the
Philippine Heraldry Commission, for insignia of ranks,
awards, medals of honor;
9. Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in
matters pertaining to the discharge of its own
powers and duties,and designate who among its
personnel can issue processes and administer oaths
in connection therewith;
10. Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on
the established criteria for manpower allocation,
distribution and deployment and their impact on the
community and the crime situation, and thereafter
formulate appropriate guidelines for maximization of
resources and effective utilization of the PNP
11. Monitor the performance of the local chief
executives as deputies of the Commission; and
12. Monitor and investigate police anomalies and
B. Advise the President on all matters involving police
functions and administration;
C. Render to the President and to Congress an annual
report of its activities and accomplishments during the
thirty (30)days after the end of the calendar year,
which shall include an appraisal of the conditions
obtaining in the organization and administration of
police agencies in the municipalities, cities and
provinces throughout the country, and
recommendations for appropriate remedial
D. Recommend to the President, through the Secretary,
within sixty (60) days before the commencement of
each calendar year, a crime prevention program; and
E. Perform such other functions necessary to carry out
the provisions of R.A. 6975, as amended, other
existing laws and Presidential issuance's, and as the
President may direct.
COMPOSITION OF NAPOLCOM
1. One chairperson
2. Four regular commissioner
3. The Chief PNP as ex officio member
* shall serve a term of office of six (6) years
without reappointment or extension
* three of the four regular commissioners shall come
from civilian sector and not former members of the
police or military
* the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the
law enforcement sector either active or retired
* at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners
shall be a woman
* from among the three regular commissioners from
the civilian sector, the Vice Chairperson shall be
* the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive
Officer of the Commission
* refer to the organizational structure of the
Important dates in the history of modern Philippine Policing
FUNCTIONS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION
1. PRIMARY OR LINE FUNCTIONS
- functions that carry out the major purposes of the
organization, delivering the services and dealing
directly with the public
- the backbone of the police department
- examples of the line functions of the police are
patrolling, traffic duties, crime investigation
2. STAFF/ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS
- functions that are designed to support the line
functions and assist in the performance of the line
- examples of the staff functions of the police are
planning, research, budgeting and legal advice
3. AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS
- functions involving the logistical operations of the
- examples are training, communication, maintenance,
records management, supplies and equipment management
ORGANIC UNITS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION
1. OPERATIONAL UNITS
- those that perform primary or line functions
- examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and vice
2. ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS
- those that perform the administrative functions
examples are personnel, finance, planning and
3. SERVICE UNITS
- those that perform auxiliary functions
- examples are communication, records
- the systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members, positions,departments and
functions or work of the organization
- it is comprised of functions, relationships,
responsibilities and authorities of individuals within
KINDS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES
- the oldest and simplest kind; also called military
- defined by its clear chain of command from the
highest to the lowest and vice versa
- depicts the line functions of the organization
- orders or commands must come from the higher l
level of authority before it can be carried out
- involves few departments
- structure according to functions and specialized units
- depicts staff functions of the organization
- responsibilities are divided among authorities who
are all accountable to the authority above.
3. LINE AND STAFF
- a combination of the line and functional kind
- combines the flow of information from the line
structure with the staff departments that service,
advise, and support them
- generally more formal in nature and has many
FOUR PRIMAL CONDITIONS OF AN ORGANIZATION
- the supreme source of government for any
- the right to exercise, to decide and to command
by virtue of rank and position
2. MUTUAL COOPERATION
- an organization exists because it serves a
- provides for the organization’s objectives
- provides the various actions, hence, policies,
procedures, rules and regulations of the org.
are based on the statement of doctrines
- comprising behavioral regulations
ELEMENTS OF POLICE ORGANIZATION
1. UNITY OF COMMAND
- dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding
the unit to ensure uniformity in the execution of
2. SPAN OF CONTROL
- the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can effectively supervise
Factors affecting the span of control:
a) Leadership qualities of the supervisors
b) Nature of the job and work conditions
c) Complexity of task
d) Education and skill of the employees
3. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
- conferring of an amount of authority by a superior
position to a lower-level position.
4. HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY
- the relationship between superiors and
- serves as the framework for the flow of authority
downward and obedience upward through the
HIERARCHY - represents the formal relationship
among superiors and subordinates in any given
- the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks
SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS (AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION)
- the designation of certain activities or tasks as
ones that must be performed in a highly.
technological,scientific or precise manner
- areas of police specialization include undercover
works, crime scene operations, legal advising,
computer work, SWAT operations and others
SPECIALIZATION OF PEOPLE (SPECIALISTS)
- the designation of particular persons as having
expertise in a specific area of work
- signifies the adaptation of an individual to the
requirements through extensive training
6. CHAIN OF COMMAND
- the arrangement of officers from top to bottom
on the basis of rank or position and authority.
7. COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY
- dictates that immediate commanders shall be
responsible for the effective supervision and
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM
The institution of police in the Philippines formally
started during the Spanish period. The establishment of
the police force was not entirely intended for crime
prevention nor peacekeeping. Rather, it was created as an
extension of the colonial military establishment.
The forerunner of the contemporary police system was the practice of barangay chieftains to select
able-bodied young men to protect their barangay
during the night and were not required to work
in the fields during daytime.Among the duties of
those selected were to protect the properties
of the people in the barangay and protect their
crops and livestock from wild animals.
Carabineros de Seguridad Publica – organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying the regulations
of the Department of State; this was armed
and considered as the mounted police; years after, this kind of police organization discharged the duties of a port, harbor and river police.
Guardrilleros/Cuardillo – this was a body of rural police by the Royal Decree of 18 January 1836, this decree provided that 5% of the
able-bodied male inhabitants of each province were to be enlisted in this police organization for
Guardia Civil – this was created by a Royal Decree issued by the Crown on 12 February 1852
to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of
their work in policing towns,it consisted of a body
of Filipino policemen organized originally in each
of the provincial capitals of the central provinces
of Luzon under the Alcalde Mayor
The Americans established the United States Philippine
Commission headed by General Howard Taft as its first
governor-general. On January 9, 1901, the Metropolitan
Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant to Act No 70of the Taft Commission. This has become the basis for the
celebration of the anniversary of the Manila’s Finest every January 9th.
ACT NO 175 – entitled “An Act Providing for the
Organization and Government of an Insular Constabulary”,enacted on July 18, 1901.
Henry T. Allen - Captain of the 6th US cavalry, a graduate of West Point class 1882. Father of the Philippine Constabulary.The first chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1901.
ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted on July 31, 1901.
CAPT GEORGE CURRY - the first chief of police
of the Manila Police Department in 1901.
Act No 255 – the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary into Philippine Constabulary,
enacted on October 3, 1901
Executive Order 389 – ordered that the Philippine Constabulary be one of the four services
of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, enacted on
December 23, 1940.
RA 4864 – otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of 1966, enacted on September 8, 1966; created the Police Commission
(POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to oversee the
training and professionalization of the local
police forces under the Office of the President; later POLCOM was renamed into National Police
Martial Law Period
PD 765 – otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975,enacted on August 8, 1975;
established the Integrated National Police (INP)
composed of the Philippine Constabulary (PC)
as the nucleus and the integrated local police forces
as components, under the Ministry of National
- transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the
President to the Ministry of National Defense
Post Martial Law Regime
Executive Order No 1012 – transferred to the city and municipal government the operational
supervision and direction over all INP units assigned within their locality; issued on July 10, 1985
Executive Order No 1040 – transferred the administrative control and supervision of the INP
from the Ministry of National Defense to the National Police Commission
RA 6975 – otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990,
enacted on December 13,1990; reorganized the
DILG and established the Philippine National Police,
Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety College.
RA 8551 – otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act
of 1998, enacted on February 25, 1998; this law
amended certain provisions of RA 6975.
RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum educational
qualification for appointment to the PNP and
adjusting the promotion system; approved on 12 August 2009.
- An Act extending for five (5) years the reglementary period for complying with the minimum educational qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system thereof,amending for the purpose pertinent provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 and for other purposes.
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