Fingerprint - is an impression left by the friction ridge of a human finger.
Friction ridge - is a raised portion of the epidermis on the fingers and toes, the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of the friction ridge skin.These are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges"
Dermatoglyphics - scientific study of fingerprints.
Type of Prints
1. Exemplar - "known prints" - fingerprints deliberately collected from a subject.
2. Latent - means chance or accidental impression left by the friction ridge skin on a surface regardless of whether it is visible or invisible at the time of deposition. Although the word latent means hidden or invisible in modern usage for forensic science.
3.Patent - chance friction ridge impressions which are obvious to the human eye and which have been caused by the transfer of foreign material from a finger into a surface.
4. Plastic Print - is a friction ridge impression left in a material that retains the shape of the ridge detail.
5. Electronic Recording - example, a man selling stolen watches sending images of them on a mobile phone and those images included parts of his hands in enough detail for police to be able to identify fingerprint patterns.
Personalities who significantly contributed to the science of fingerprint.
Biometrics (Biometric Authentication) - refers to the identification of humans by their characteristics or traits.
Latent Print - (known as dactyloscopy or hand print identification) - is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions from human fingers, palm of the hand, or even toes to determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual.
The Most Popular Ten Print Classification System.
1. Roscher System - developed in Germany. Implemented in Germany and Japan.
2. Juan Vucetich System - developed in Argentina. Implemented through out South America.
3. Henry Classification System - developed in India. Implemented in most English speaking countries.
In the Henry System of Classification. There are 3 basic fingerprint patterns.
1. Loop - constitute 60% to 65% of all fingerprint.
Kinds of Loop
2. Whorl - constitute 30% to 35% of all fingerprints.
Kinds of Whorl
3)double Loop whorl
4)central Pocket Loop Whorl.
3. Arch - constitute 5% of all fingerprints.
Kinds of Arch
The Basic Fundamentals of Fingerprints are:
1. Permanence - fingerprints never change.
2. Individuality - no two fingerprints are alike.
Characteristics of a Ridge (minutia Features)
1. Ridge Ending - the end of a ridge.
2. Bifurcation - the Y-shaped split of one ridge into
3. Dot - is a very short ridge that looks like a dot.
When is fingerprint ridges formed? ans. formed during the third to fourth month of fetal development.
Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) - is the process of automatically matching one of many unknown fingerprints against a database of known and unknown prints.
What is a Loop? ans. the ridges enter from one side of the finger, form a curve and then exit on that same side.
What is a whorl? ans. ridges form circularly around a central point on the finger.
What is an Arch? ans. the ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise in the center forming an arch and then exit the other side of the finger.
What does a Minutiae Include? ans. It includes the following:
1. Ridge Ending - the abrupt end of a ridge.
2. Ridge Bifurcation - a single ridge that divides into
3. Short Ridge or Independent Ridge - a ridge that
commences, travels a short distance and then
4. Island - a single small ridge inside a short ridge
or ridge ending that is not connected to all other
5. Ridge Enclosure - a single ridge that bifurcates and
reunites shortly afterward to continue as a single
6. Spur - a bifurcation with a short ridge branching off
a longer ridge.
7. Crossover or Bridge - a short ridge that runs
between two parallel ridges.
8. Delta - a Y-shape ridge meeting.
9. Core - A U-turn in the ridge pattern.
Forensic Anthropology - forensic discipline that studies human skeletal remains for identification.
Forensic Odontology - study of dental features to identify a victim when the body is otherwise unidentifiable.
Related Readings: Personal Identification
1. Personal Identification Reviewer 1
2. Forensic Medicine Definition of Terms