Questioned Document - is any signature, handwriting, typewriting or other mark whose source or authenticity is in dispute or doubtful.
Graphology - study of the handwriting to determine personality traits.
Simulation - an attempt to disguise one's handwriting or copy someone Else's.
The following trait are considered in handwriting analysis:
Characteristics which indicate that a handwriting sample has been forge.
Calligraphy - decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering. The art of producing decorative handwriting or lettering with a pen or brush. From Greek "Kallos"-beauty and "Graphe"-writing.
Three Stages in the Process of Handwriting Examinations
1. Analysis - the questioned and the known items are
analyzed and broken down to directly perceptible
2. Comparison - the characteristics of the questioned
item are then compared against the known
3. Evaluation - similarities and differences in the
compared properties are evaluated and this
determines which ones are valuable for a
conclusion. This depends on the uniqueness and
frequency of occurrence in the items.
Handwriting Exemplar - known standards - is a piece of writing that can be examined forensically as in a handwriting comparison.
Two Types of Handwriting Exemplars
1. Request Writings - obtained from individual
specifically for the purpose of conducting a
2. Collected Writings -samples the individual produced
for some other unrelated reason generally in the
course of their day to day activities.
Common Questioned Documents
3. Mail Fraud
8. Sex Crime
Historical Dating - work involving the verification of age and worth of a document or object.
Indicators of Forgery
1. Blunt starts ans stops
2. Pen lifts and hesitations
4. Speed and Pressure
Related Readings: Questioned Documents
1. Questioned Document Definition of Terms
2. Forensic Chemistry Definition of Terms