Introduction To Criminology - Definition Of Terms
Alienist – This term is applied to a specialist in the study of mental disorders.
Anthropology – Science devoted to the study of mankind and its development in relation to its physical, mental, and cultural history.
Auto-phobia – (monophobia) A morbid fear of one's self or of being alone.
Behavior Systems In Crime – Progress in the explanation of disease is being made personally by the studies of specific diseases. Similarly it is desirable to concentrate research work in criminology on specific crimes and on specific sociological units within the broad area of crime and within the legal definition of specific types of crime such as kidnapping and robbery.
Biometry – A measuring or calculating of the probable duration of human life; The attempt to correlate the frequency of crime between parents and children of brothers or sisters.
Bio-social Behavior – A persons biological heritage plus his environment and social heritage influence his social activity. It is through the reciprocal actions of his biological and social heritages that a persons personality is developed.
Broader Social Group -
Cesare Beccaria – In his book “An Essay Of Crimes And Punishment” London 1767, advocated and applied the doctrine of penology that is to make punishment less arbitrary and severe than it had been; That all persons who violated a specific law should receive identical punishment regardless of age, sanity, wealth, position or circumstances.
Cesare Lombroso – A medical doctor who made extensive research in physical characteristics of criminals, political crimes and revolutions and relationships between the criminal and anthropology.
Charles Goring – An English statistician who studies the case histories of 2000 convicts. He found that heredity is more influential as a determiner of criminal behavior than environment.
Colajani – A criminologist, describes the direct and indirect deficiency of the means to satisfy the numerous necessities of man is sufficient stimulus for him to adopt honest or criminal methods in the struggle that ensues. “To this man delinquency is strongly influenced by socio economic”.
Competitive Development Of Techniques Of Crime And Of The Protection Against Crime – Both sides may appropriate the inventions of modern science so far as they are useful to them. When the police develop an invention for the detection or identification of criminals, the criminals utilize a device to protect themselves.
Cretinism – A disease associated with pre-natal thyroid deficiency and subsequent thyroid inactivity, marked by physical deformities, arrested development, goiter and various forms of mental retardation including imbecility.
Crime Index – Any record of crimes such as crimes known to the police, arrest, conviction or commitments to prisons.
Crime Statistics – A reported instance of a crime recorded in a systematic classification.
Criminality In The Home – One of the most obvious elements in the delinquency of some children is the criminalistic behavior of other members of the child's family.
Criminal Psycho-dynamics – The study of mental processes of criminals in action, the study of the genesis, development and motivation of human behavior that conflicts with accepted norms and standards of society; This study concentrates on the study of individuals as opposed to general studies of mass populations with respect to their general criminal behavior.
Criminogenic Process – The process which explain human behavior, the experiences which help determine the nature or a persons as a reacting mechanism, the factors or experiences in connection thereto impinge differentially upon different personalities producing conflict which is the aspect of crime.
Criminology – Scientific study and investigation of crime and criminals as well as the identification of criminals and detection of crime.
Cultural Conflict – A clash between societies because of contrary beliefs or substantial variance in their respective customs, language, institutions, habits, learning traditions, etc.
Decriminalization – To remove or reduce in status the criminal classification through legislation of certain criminal laws.
Delusion – In medical jurisprudence, a false belief about the self caused by morbidity, present in paranoia and dementia praecox.
Dementia praecox – A collective term for mental disorders that begin at or shortly after puberty and usually lead to general failure of the mental faculties with the corresponding physiological impairment.
Dr. Cesare Lombroso – Advocated the positivist theory that crime is essentially a social phenomenon and it can not be treated and checked by the imposition of punishment.
Economic Approach – The unjust utilization of economic resources sometimes create resentment among individual which often lead them to frustration and develop a feeling of hatred and provocative criminal conduct will result.
Edwin H. Sutherland – An American authority in criminology who in his book Principles of Criminology considers criminology at present as not a science but it has hope of becoming a science.
England During The Last Half Of 19th Century – Place and period where and when the classical school of criminology and of criminal law developed based on hedonistic psychology.
Episodic Criminal – A non criminal person who commits a crime when under extreme emotional distress; A person who breaks down and commits a crime as a single incident during regular course of natural and normal events.
Erotomania – A morbid propensity to love or make love. Uncontrollable sexual desire or excessive sexual cravings by member of either sex.
Euthanasia – It signifies the release from life given a sufferer from an incurable and painful disease.
Extrovert – As opposed to introvert (a person highly adapted to living in and deriving satisfaction from external world) he is interested in people and things than ideas, values, and theories. He likes people being around them and being liked by them.
Family – It is the first agency to affect the direction which a particular child will take and that no child is so constituted at birth that it must inevitably become a delinquent or that it must inevitably be law abiding.
Fashions In Crime – Certain types of crimes have disappeared almost entirely thus the general situation may change and cause the disappearance of crime.
Ferri – A sociologists who theorized that it is the impulse of opportunities more than innate tendency that determine the crime.
Gang – Means of disseminating techniques of delinquencies of training in delinquency, of protecting its members engage in delinquency and of maintaining continuity in delinquency.
George L. Wilker – A criminologist who in his book “The Scientific Adequacy Of Criminological Concept” argued that criminology can not possibly become a science. Accordingly, general proposition of universal validity are the essence of science, such proposition can be made only regarding stable and homogeneous unit but varies from one time to another, therefore, universal proposition can not be made regarding crime and scientific studies of criminal behavior are impossible.
Government – It is an organized authority that can influence social control through its branches, particularly in the making of laws.
Hallucination – An apparent perception without any corresponding external object, especially in psychiatry, any of the numerous sensations, auditory, visual or tactile experienced without external stimulus and cause by mental derangement , intoxication or fever hence, maybe a sign of approaching insanity.
Heredity – It may be a transmission of physical characteristics, mental traits, tendency to disease etc. from parents to offspring. In genetics, the tendency manifested by an organism to develop in the likeness of a progenitor due to the transmission of genes in the reproductive process.
Heredity and Environment – Have been believe to share about equally in determining disposition that is whether a person is cheerful or gloomy, his temperament and his nervous stability.
H. H. Godard – Advocated the theory that feeble-mindedness inherited as Mendelian unit cause crime for the reason that feeble minded person is unable to appreciate the consequences of his behavior or appreciate the meaning of the law.
Home – Considered as the cradle of human personality for in it the child forms the fundamental attitudes and habits that endure through out his life.
Home Discipline – it is considered as 4 times as important as poverty in the home in relation to delinquency; that it fails most frequently because of indifference and neglect.
Insanity – Common Types
Introvert – An individual with strongly self centered patterns of emotion, fantasy and thought.
John Gaspar Lobater – A Swiss theologian, regarded the lack of beard in man, the swirly eye or angry eye and weak chin serve as clues to unfavorable personality or characteristic traits of an individual.
- phrenology or any of the protuberances of the skull as interpreted with reference to ones mental faculties (pseudonym science) as popularized by Hanz Joseph Gall.
Jonathan Edwards family – One family tree that contradicted the theory that criminality is inherited. A famous preacher in the colonial period, none of his descendants were found to be criminals.
Jukes Family – Family trees have been used extensively by certain scholars in the effort to prove that criminality is inherited.
Kleptomania – An uncontrollable morbid propensity to steal.
Legomacy – A statemetn that we would have no crime if we had no criminal laws and that we could eliminate all crime merely by abolishing all criminal law.
Mania Fanatica – A morbid of insanity characterized by a deep and morbid sense of religious feeling.
Masochism – A condition of sexual perversion in which a person derives pleasure from being dominated or cruelly treated.
Maturation – A process which appears in the life history of persisting criminals. This process describes the development of criminality with reference first to the general attitudes toward criminality and second to the techniques used in criminal behavior.
Mc Naghten Rule – Insanity is used to describe legally harmful behavior perpetrated under circumstances in which the actor did not know the nature or quality of his act or did not know right from wrong. This explanation was formulated in England in 1843.
Megalomania – A mental disorder in which the subject thinks himself great or exalted.
Melancholia – A mental disorder characterized by excessive brooding and depression of spirits; Typical of manic depressive psychosis accompanied with delusions and hallucinations.
Mobility – The most significant social condition accompanying the industrial and democratic revolutions because of this a condition of anonymity was created and the agencies by which control had been secured in almost all earlier societies were greatly weakened.
Multiple Factors Of Cause Of Crimes -
Necrophilism – Morbid craving usually of an erotic nature for dead bodies.
Neurosis – Is any kind of the mental functional disorders characterized by anxiety, compulsion, phobia, depression, dissociation, etc.
Organization Of criminals – This may be developed thru the interaction of criminal, this may be a formal association with recognized leadership understanding, agreements and division of labor or it may be a formal similarity and reciprocity of interest and attitudes.
Pedophilia – A sexual desire of an adult for children.
Physiognomy – Art of discovering character by observation and measurement of outward appearances especially the face.
Primary Social Group -
Progressive Conflict – This process begins with arrest which is intgerpreted as defining a person as an enemy of society and which calls forth hostile relations from representative of society prior to and regardless of proof of guilt, that each side tends to drive the other side to greater violence unless it becomes stabilized on a recognized level.
Prussian Law of 1784 – prohibit mothers and nurses from taking children under 2 years old of age into their beds.
Psychosis – Is a major mental disorder in which personality is very seriously disorganized and contact with reality is usually impaired.
Rafael Garofalo – A criminologist who pro-founded that society sets only 2 elements in crime, the opportunity and victim. He classified criminals into murderers, thieves, sexual offenders (cynics) And violent criminals.
- Italian criminologist who developed a concept of the natural crime and defined it a violation of the prevalent sentiments of pity and probity.
Regionalism – crime rate not only vary from one region to another but also generally among the several sections of each nation.
Religion – It emphasizes of morals and life's highest spiritual values, the work and dignity of an individual and respect for the person and property of others generally a powerful forces.
Rural Criminality – According to Marshall B. Olinard, this kind of criminality is explained by the persons identification with delinquents and his conception of himself as reckless and mobile an explanation which is consistent with differential association.
School – It is a strategic position to prevent crime and delinquency.
Segregation – This may be observed in the interaction between criminals and the public thus, a person with criminal record may be ostracized in one community but may become a political leader in other communities.
Sixto de Leon – The first chairman of the board of criminology.
Social Institutions And Crime – The general explanation of one topic in relation to criminal behavior is that causes of crime lie primarily in the area of personal interaction and that personal interaction is confined most entirely to local community and neighborhood.
Social Psychological – Advocated by John Dewey, George Mead, Charles Cooley and W.I. Thomas, that development of criminal behavior is considered as involving the same learning process as does the development of the the behavior of a banker, doctor etc.; that the content of learning not the process itself is considered as the significant element determining whether one becomes a criminal or non criminal.
Socialist School of Criminology – Based on writings of Marx and Engels, began 1850 and emphasized economic determinism; that crime is only a by product, variations in crime rates in association with variations in economic conditions.
Sociological And Cultural Approach – It includes assessment of those forces resulting from man's collective survival effort with emphasis upon his institution, economic, financial, educational, political, religion as well as recreational.
Sociological School – Interpreted crime as function of social environment; emphasizing importance of imitation in crime causation.
Sociology – May mean a study of human society, its origin, structure, function and direction.
W. A. Bonger – Classified crimes by the motives of the offenders as economic crimes, sexual crimes, political and miscellaneous crimes with vengeance as the principal motive.
White Collar Crimes – crimes committed by persons on the upper socio economic level or occupying a high position in the organization.
1. Criminal Justice System
2. Juvenile Delinquency